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  Most popular articles (Since August 11, 2021)

 
 
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EDITORIALS
Do we need another medical journal in the United Arab Emirates?
Qutayba Hamid
January-March 2022, 1(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_17_21  
  1,770 150 -
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Effectiveness of cervical spine manual therapy in the management of temporomandibular joint disorders: A systematic review
Shayma Waleed Bahlool, Kausar Sadia Fakhruddin, Fatma A Hegazy
January-March 2022, 1(1):23-33
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_10_21  
Background: Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a complex condition involving temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and adjoining myofascial structures. In the present review, we attempted to evaluate the manual cervical therapy (MT) effect in reducing TMJ pain of myogenous origin and increasing mandibular range of motion (ROM) in TMD cases in relevance to the duration of therapy and posttherapy follow-up period. Materials and Methods: English language manuscripts using PUBMED/MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHLPlus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CDR, and PEDro databases were accessed between January 01, 2011, and January 2021. Following PRISMA guidelines, eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Results: The analysis included 383 patients with TMD, primarily women aged ±27 (18–72) years. Employing varied techniques of manual cervical therapies, the reviewed RCT results demonstrated either immediate or short-term effectiveness in orofacial pain reduction and improvement in jaw function. Conclusion: This review presented the short-term effectiveness of cervical manual therapy and limited high-quality evidence determining the optimal procedure of cervical manual therapy approaches and duration of the session provided to treat cases with TMD of myogenous origin.
  1,619 109 -
EDITORIALS
The evolving landscape of digital health using big data analytics for personalized healthcare
Salman Yousuf Guraya
January-March 2022, 1(1):5-6
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_22_21  
  1,389 144 -
Advances in medical and health sciences: The promise and challenges
Mohamed H Sayegh
January-March 2022, 1(1):3-4
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_9_21  
  1,384 118 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
C-type lectin receptors in skin immunity: Emerging new role for CLEC12B
Lauriane Blot, Thierry Passeron, Meri K Tulic
January-March 2022, 1(1):13-22
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_20_21  
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins, which consist of one or several C-type lectin-like domains and intracellular signaling motifs, such as immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). CLRs are mostly expressed on antigen-presenting cells and are known to play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunity. As a result, CLRs are involved in numerous physiological functions due to their ability to recognize pathogen-, tumor-, and damaged-associated molecular patterns on pathogens and host cells acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These immune receptors can respond to signals from the surrounding environment which has a direct and profound effect on the skin, the largest organ in the body and the only one that is in direct contact with the external environmental stimuli. The skin is colonized by a plethora of microorganisms constituting the skin microbiota and plays a central role in host defense against potentially pathogenic microbes including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Skin dysbiosis has been shown to play a critical role in initiation of skin disease and/or induction of a local inflammatory environment. In this review, we discuss what is known about CLRs in skin immunity and their contribution to skin disease, with a special focus on a newly identified and a promising new CLR, CLEC12B.
  1,297 176 -
CASE REPORT
Retrieval of overextending separated endodontic instrument: A review of methods and case report
Saaid Al Shehadat, Mohamed El-Kishawi, Renira Nisha Lobo, Priyanka Jain
January-March 2022, 1(1):59-62
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_4_21  
Instrument separation during root canal treatment is one of the most unpleasant mishaps. Several techniques have been described to retrieve the separated instruments; however, they generally require specific tools that are not always available at dental clinics. This case report aims at presenting a simple alternative technique for the removal of root canal instruments separated during endodontic treatment. Endodontic retreatment was indicated for a maxillary lateral incisor of a 19-year-old patient. The radiographic examinations revealed the presence of a separated (fractured) instrument beyond the apical part of the canal. Retreatment was initiated by removing the obturated materials. After several unsuccessful attempts to retrieve the broken fragment, a hypodermic needle with chemically self-cure acrylic resin was used under an endodontic microscope to remove the separated fragment successfully. The retrieval technique used in this case was safe, simple, and low cost.
  1,219 95 -
COMMENTARY
Regulatory frameworks for a safe and effective use of essential oils: A critical appraisal
Farah Naja, Rena Hamadeh, Mohamad Alameddine
January-March 2022, 1(1):7-12
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_8_21  
The safe and effective use of essential oils (EOs) will only be fully realized when coupled with supportive regulatory frameworks ensuring the safety, quality, and efficacy of these oils. The aim of this short communication was to present a critical appraisal of existing regulations governing the use and production of EOs, within the health and therapeutics, food industry, and cosmetics sectors. Although few regulations target the use of EOs in cosmetics, more structured regulatory frameworks exist within the health and therapeutics, and food industry domains. To that end, the main international entities involved in the regulation of EOs within these sectors are the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization. As for the production of EOs, the International Organization for Standardization has set standard specifications for the derivation, characterization, packaging, labeling, and storage of EOs. Although existing regulations address important dimensions related to the production and use of EOs, a comprehensive and harmonized outlook on their regulations would be necessary to ensure their safe integration in the various industries. Such regulations ought to be informed by the important advances in the chemical and biological research unraveling the versatile and complex characteristics of these oils.
  1,183 102 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Vitamin D attenuates viral-induced inflammation in adipocytes of obese individuals
Mellissa Gaudet, Andrea Mogas, Saba Al Heialy
January-March 2022, 1(1):45-50
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_19_21  
Background: The clinical association between obesity and increased risk of infection is well established; however, the role of adipocytes remains unknown. Adipocytes are important players in the meta-inflammation observed in obese individuals. Moreover, adipocytes are now emerging as potential viral reservoirs for viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus behind the COVID-19 pandemic, due to increased expression of virus receptors [angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2]. Moreover, obesity has been linked to vitamin D deficiency. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation can attenuate the viral-induced inflammation in adipocytes of obese subjects and potentially regulate the expression of viral receptors. Materials and Methods: Adipocytes were differentiated in vitro from subcutaneous human pre-adipocytes obtained from nonobese and obese individuals. Poly(I:C) (10 μg/mL), which binds to toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), was used to mimic viral infection, in the absence and presence of 100 nM of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for 24 hours. Adipocytes were collected for RNA extraction. qRT-PCR was performed to assess the expression of TLR3, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β, ACE2, TMPRSS2. Results: Pre-stimulation with Poly(I:C), adipocytes from obese individuals showed higher expression of TLR3, TNF-α, IFN-β, ACE2, and TMPRSS2 highlighting the inflammatory status of obese adipocytes. Following stimulation with Poly(I:C), expression of TLR3, IL-8, TNF-α, and IFN-β were significantly increased in obese adipocytes compared to nonobese. Vitamin D supplementation was able to decrease significantly TLR3, IL-8, and IFN-β expression. Expression of IL-6, ACE2, and TMPRSS2 were increased in both nonobese and obese adipocytes in response to Poly (I:C) with significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on IL-6 and TMPRSS2 expression in obese adipocytes. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation provides a potential therapeutic advantage in the viral-induced inflammation seen in adipocytes especially in relation to obesity. Our results also suggest that vitamin D can be used to regulate the expression of receptors and proteases involved in SARS-CoV-2 viral entry.
  1,128 93 -
Diversity in microbiota between Indian and Emiratis ethnicities is associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia
Zainab Al Shareef, Naveed Ahmed Khan, Mai Nidal Asad Ershaid, Sameh Soliman, Adel B Elmoselhi
January-March 2022, 1(1):51-58
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_13_21  
Background: Herein, we investigated the correlation between microbiota profile and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in patients from two different ethnicities, Indian and United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: Prostate samples were collected from patients in Al Baraha Hospital in Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Next, metagenomic analysis of bacterial species was carried out by extracting DNA and 16S rRNA analysis. Results: Our results revealed that the gut bacterial communities of the Indian and Emirati populations were different. Principal coordinates analyses revealed differences in the bacterial community structure. Around 265 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were specific to the Indian population vs. 968 bacterial OTUs observed in the Emirati population, whereas 586 bacterial OTUs were common to both groups. When the relative abundance of taxa was analyzed, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota, and Firmicutes represented the highest abundance, albeit the relative abundance was different between the two groups. At the genus level, the distribution of the genus Ralstonia was most abundant in the Emirati population followed by Pseudomonas, whereas Acinetobacter was the most abundant in the Indian population followed by Stenotrophomonas. Likewise, differences were observed between other genera in both groups. MetaStats analysis revealed that 21 bacterial species were considerably different between the two groups. Conclusion: Collectively, the data revealed that both groups showed differences in the structure of bacterial community. Further studies are warranted to determine the precise role of specific bacterial species in BPH and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The findings arising from these studies will be important in the rational development of therapeutic interventions.
  1,086 106 -
Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the novel COVID-19 outbreak: A cross-sectional study in Palestitine
Hatem A Hejaz, Inad Nawajah, Maaly Wredat, Walaa Melhem
July-September 2022, 1(3):162-174
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_16_21  
Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a global concern and the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared it as a public health emergency of international concern. Objectives: This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 among the general population of Palestine at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire; a series of questions regarding the KAP of the population about COVID-19 was asked, and participants’ demographic characteristics and source of information regarding COVID-19 were collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, version 26.0. Results: Seven hundred twenty-four individuals participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 28 years (standard deviation [SD] = 10.7), the majority were females 558 (77.1%), with a bachelor’s degree 480 (66.3%), and 229 (31.6%) students. Most of them from Hebron governorate 609 (84.1%) and many of them reported that they wear a mask when they leave their house and avoid shaking hands, 494 (68.2%), 424 (58.6%), respectively. The results indicate that Palestinians have a good level of knowledge about COVID-19 with a positive attitude and good compliance with Palestinian government measures. The result showed a significant correlation between female gender, higher age, and higher education with KAP. However, male gender, nonhealth-care-related professions, single, and lower level of education were significantly associated with lower knowledge scores. There was no clear satisfaction with the government’s role in limiting and controlling the spread of COVID-19. Conclusions: Palestinian population showed decent knowledge, appropriate practice, and a positive attitude toward the COVID-19 outbreak.
  1,049 45 -
Echocardiography as an important tool for teaching and learning in the preclinical phase of the medical school curriculum
Mohamed Seif Allah Shehata, Mohamed Ahmad Eladl, Majd Al-Deen Alhuarrat, Adel B Elmoselhi
April-June 2022, 1(2):109-115
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_3_21  
Background: A transformation in medical education is currently underway, prioritizing competency and clinical integration with basic sciences. This study explores the feasibility of the early echocardiography (Echo) experience as an adjunct tool for teaching heart anatomy and physiology to second-year medical students. Methods: The study was conducted on 99 students in a problem-based learning curriculum. Students were introduced to cardiac anatomy and physiology as well as to the basic principles of ultrasonography before the Echo sessions. A pretest was conducted at the beginning of the Echo theoretical session, consisting of 10 questions on Echo images. The practical sessions included hands-on experience on standardized patients with a checklist of commonly demonstrated structures in left parasternal and apical four-chamber windows. A posttest with the same questions was repeated after the clinical sessions. Results: The posttest outcome revealed a significant improvement in identifying the cardiac structures and function compared with the pretest (P-value ≤ 0.0001). Although the students were very accurate in identifying heart chambers and valves without assistance, the pulmonary artery and valve in the parasternal short axis were mainly able to be identified with assistance. Further, 92% of students admitted that prior basic knowledge is essential for Echo image identification, and 86% stated that integrating this experience helps consolidate different phases of the cardiac cycle. Conclusion: The Echo’s spatial orientation with prior basic knowledge seems to provide an effective tool in consolidating medical students’ understanding of heart anatomical relations and cardiac physiology.
  837 56 -
Minimally invasive surgeries for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders: Prognostic indicators and persistence of treatment outcomes over a 5-year follow-up
Wael M Talaat, Zaid Hamdoon, Mohamed M Ghoneim
January-March 2022, 1(1):34-44
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_14_21  
Background: Patients refractory to conservative treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are candidates for more invasive treatments such as arthroscopy and arthrocentesis. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictors of long-term success and the persistence of treatment outcome for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroscopic lysis and lavage and arthrocentesis for the treatment of TMD. Methods: An analysis of 64 minimally invasive surgeries used to treat disk displacement without reduction in group I (n = 36), and osteoarthritis in group II (n = 28) was conducted. Success was identified as a pain score ≤ 3, disability score ≤ 2, and maximal mouth opening greater than 35 mm. Results: The overall success rate was 85.9%. The difference in success rate between groups was not significant (P = 0.441). Preoperative predictors of success in group I were fewer tender muscles (P < 0.01), shorter duration of symptoms (P = 0.046), lower pain (P < 0.01), and lower disability (P = 0.0104), whereas in group II there were fewer tender muscles (P < 0.01), less limitation in opening (P < 0.01), and lower disability (P = 0.0131). Conclusion: Arthroscopy and arthrocentesis were equally efficient after 5 years. Fewer tender muscles and lower disability preoperatively were common predictors of success. Pain recorded at 1 year, and maximum opening and disability recorded at 3 months were maintained after 5 years.
  758 110 -
TECHNICAL REPORT
A novel endodontic extractor needle for separated instrument retrieval: A new patent technology
Saaid Al Shehadat, Colin Alexander Murray, Sunaina Shetty Yadadi
April-June 2022, 1(2):116-119
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_21_21  
A novel needle that can be used to retrieve endodontic separated instruments (SIs) from the root canal of a tooth is described in this article. The needle tip is fabricated with a thermomechanically treated NiTi alloy exhibiting both shape memory and super-elasticity. The alloy demonstrates martensitic phase at certain low temperatures (25°C or less) and austenitic phase at certain slightly higher temperatures (35°C or more). These properties facilitate the needle to be straight at room temperature but incorporate a specific snakelike shape when inserted in the root canal of the tooth from which the endodontic SI is to be removed. The suggested lengths for the needles are 21, 25, and 31 mm with five different sizes of the lumina (the internal diameter is 0.25, 0.40, 0.60, 0.80, or 1 mm). The wall thickness of the needle is 0.20 for the last 3 mm of the needle then gradually increases to 0.35 for the coronal aspects. The design of this needle has the US patent application number US 2020/0129268 A1, April 30, 2020.
  809 57 -
EDITORIALS
Postgraduate dental education: Training the future specialist and clinical leader of tomorrow
AR Samsudin
April-June 2022, 1(2):65-67
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_15_22  
  790 54 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Attitude of complete denture wearers to denture maintenance and recall visits: A 10-year observational study
Bolanle Oyeyemi Akinboboye, Olugbenga Adetokunbo Adenuga-Taiwo, Oluwafeyisayo Francis Ikusika, Oluwole O Dosunmu
April-June 2022, 1(2):92-98
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_23_21  
Background: The demand for complete dentures will persist due to population growth and people living longer. The study assessed denture hygiene and maintenance practices over a period of 10 years. Methods: This was a 10-year prospective study of individuals rehabilitated with complete dentures. Data on socio-demographics, reasons for denture demand, and causes of tooth loss were retrieved before denture prescription. Data regarding denture maintenance practices, frequency and rationale for recall visits, quality of health, and patients’ perceived overall satisfaction were recorded after dentures had been in use by the participants. Data were collected over the course of review appointments and were retrieved using structured questionnaires based on the American College of Prosthodontists denture care and maintenance guidelines and the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance indicator. Retrieved data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics version 21. Level of statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Forty patients with a mean age of 69.5 ± 16.7 years were enrolled in the study. About 63.2% were male, and many (57.9%) were without co-morbidities. Most (68.4%) had dentures replacing both arches. At recall, 15.8% reported brushing dentures with toothpaste and 34.2% slept with dentures. There was a low (25%) compliance with recall appointments. This was mainly (73.3%) due to lack of motivation. Most (68.4%) of participants were satisfied with their dentures. Conclusion: The adherence to denture hygiene guidance within the limit of this study among complete denture wearers was found to be good but there was poor adherence to the denture maintenance regime.
  770 63 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
Integrons as emerging contaminants facilitating the widespread of antimicrobial resistance in Enterobacteriaceae
Anthony Ifeanyin Okoh, Folake Temitope Fadare
April-June 2022, 1(2):68-78
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_13_22  
Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are classified as emerging environmental pollutants of global public health concern. These ARGs are disseminated through genetic elements such as integrons. Integrons can acquire, integrate, and express various rearrangeable gene cassettes (GCs), harboring different ARGs that may be readily spread to other bacteria in widely varied niches. Different classes of integrons possessing diverse arrays of ARGs located within its GCs are commonly distributed in the Enterobacteriaceae family and are responsible for the high rate of multidrug resistance observed. The members of this family are natural commensals of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals released into the different aquatic environments. Various water sources further disseminate the organisms and their diverse resistance gene repertoires. Thus, understanding the distribution and diversity of the significant integron classes in the clinically relevant Enterobacteriaceae members will be of utmost importance. It will provide a framework for health authorities to make decisions on surveillance of these contaminants in the environment.
  641 55 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
COVID-19 observations from hospitalized ward patients in the Northern Emirates: A practice only preached
Shahab Qureshi, Drishti D Kampani, Tara Ali Hasan Al-Qutbi, Aalya Mohamed, Mubarak Alfaresi
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_2_22  
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has established itself as the defining global health crisis of this time. The study describes the clinical profile of hospitalized, non-intensive care unit (ICU) patients with COVID-19 in the UAE during its second wave, through January–March 2021. It also highlights the use of antibiotic stewardship principles in patients admitted with COVID-19. Methods: An observational, retrospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital based in the Northern Emirates of UAE. A consecutive sample of 110 acutely hospitalized patients with COVID-19 participated in the study. Pregnant women, patients who were admitted to the ICU, and those receiving antibiotics prior to admission were excluded. Data were collected from the written and electronic health records of included patients and subsequently analyzed using IBM SPSS (v25). Results: Population was 58.2% male with a mean age of 51.2 years; 69.1% had at least one comorbidity and 61.8% had severe COVID-19 disease. Mean white blood cell count was 6.03 ± 2.70 × 109 cells/L with a mean C-reactive protein of 83.3 ± 14.6 mg/L. About 4.2% of the tested (20.9%) blood cultures were positive. Empiric antibiotic use was limited to 9.1% of the population. Conclusion: The UAE population admitted in the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was mostly male, older with higher prevalence of comorbidities. Given the limited knowledge of the disease, the calculated clinical measures were taken to bring antibiotic use to an extraordinarily low level, not previously seen during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  667 24 -
EDITORIALS
Understanding the interprofessional phenomenon: Transforming health professions’ education from within
Hugh Barr
April-June 2022, 1(2):63-64
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_22_22  
  579 48 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Identification of unique immune response expression profiles to SARS-CoV-2 in non-small cell lung cancer using systems immunology approach
Saba Al Heialy, Mahmood Yaseen Hachim, Ibrahim Yaseen Hachim, Rifat Hamoudi, Qutayba Hamid
April-June 2022, 1(2):79-91
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_12_22  
Background: COVID-19 severity and mortality are higher in patients with lung cancer due to pulmonary complications. Understanding the mechanisms of SARS-COV-2 effect on lung cancer cells in comparison to healthy lung cells can improve our knowledge of the disease biology to discover new therapeutic targets with the aim of improving the management protocols. Methods: We aimed to investigate the immune response signature generated from COVID-19-infected NSCLC patients and compare with noninfected patients. To achieve this, publicly available transcriptomic data of lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells A549 versus healthy lung epithelium which were SARS-COV-2-infected and mock-infected were retrieved and reanalyzed to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that are dysregulated in SARS-COV-2-infected A549. Identified genes were explored for enriched pathways and further validated in silico for their expression in larger NSCLC lung samples. C57BL/6J mice infected with MA15 (mouse-adapted SARS-CoV) were used to confirm the findings. Results: A total of 7852 DEGs were identified between A549 (mock and SARS-COV-2 infected) compared to healthy epithelial cells (mock and SARS-COV-2 infected). On the contrary, 142 genes were DEGs between all mocked-infected cells (healthy and cancer) versus SARS-COV-2 infected (healthy and cancer). Those 142 genes were intersected with DEGs from the first step and were shown to be involved in cytokine-mediated signaling pathway and lymphocyte activation. A549-infected cells upregulated (IL11, RBCK1, CEBPD, EBI3, and ISG15) to a higher proportion but downregulated RELB compared to the healthy epithelium. Most of the genes (Nr1h4, Ebi3, Snai2, IL2rb, IL11, Clec4e, Cebpd, and Relb) were differentially expressed in the lung of infected mice. In silico validation confirm that IL11 expression is higher in lung adenocarcinoma compared to healthy controls. COVID-19 infection in NSCLC patients lead to the activation of specific cytokines. Conclusions: Our analysis showed IL11 to be the most differentially expressed between cancer and non-cancer patients and was associated with poor prognosis suggesting that COVID-19 infection in cancer patients leads to the synergistic increase in expression of CD4+ T cells, M1 macrophages, and follicular helper T cells.
  477 62 -
STUDENT ARTICLE
Evaluating the impact of sociodemographics and BMI on social anxiety among the students of the University of Sharjah
Emad Eddin Dalla, Abdulrahman Maziek, Shorouq Hamood, Hayat AlRaeesi, Afaf Mogharbel, Shamma Omran
July-September 2022, 1(3):181-187
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_19_22  
Background: The association between social anxiety and specific confounders such as body mass index (BMI) and gender has not been studied in the UAE yet. This study aims to assess the impact of sociodemographics and BMI on social anxiety levels among the university students. Methods: A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was performed on 578 students using a modified version of the established and validated self-administered “Social Anxiety Questionnaire-Adult 30” (SAQ-A30), which aims to assess social anxiety across five different dimensions. Furthermore, height and weight measurements were obtained using manual scales to calculate the participants’ BMI. Results: About 553 students were eligible for data analysis. Based on analytical tests, the female gender was associated with increased social anxiety (P<0.05). In addition, negative changes of body self-perception were associated with increased social anxiety scores among college students (P<0.0001). However, we found no correlation between social anxiety levels and different BMI groups among the university students. Conclusion: Social anxiety levels increase based on gender and change of body self-perception after entering college in students.
  434 35 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Expression of tissue PSA in breast cancer is associated with less aggressive disease and lower chance of tumor relapse
Ibrahim Yaseen Hachim, Mahmood Yaseen Hachim, Vanessa Michel López-Ozuna, Raji H M Al-Hadithi
July-September 2022, 1(3):121-130
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_18_22  
Background: Human kallikrein 3 (hK3), also known as Prostatic specific antigen (PSA), was considered as one of the most useful markers for the detection as well as management of prostate cancer. While PSA was thought to be a prostatic tissue-specific protein, many reports suggest the presence of extraprostatic PSA in different tissues, including the breast. Few reports showed PSA immunoreactivity in breast cancer tissues and suggest a favorable prognostic role of PSA in breast cancer. However, most of those studies were not conclusive or restricted to small scale studies limiting their clinical significance. Methods: We used a bioinformatical approach to investigate the association between tissue PSA expression levels and different clinicopathological parameters in breast cancer using different publicly available databases. Further validation was done using our patient cohort of 40 surgical breast samples obtained from patients attending Al Kadhemyia Teaching Hospital – Iraq. Results: Using a cohort of 593 breast lesion samples extracted from the TCGA database using the ONCOMINE database, our results showed no significant upregulation of PSA mRNA levels in breast cancer samples compared to healthy tissue (P = 0.1). The same trend was also observed in our patient cohort with positive immunoreactivity in 50% (5 samples) of benign lesions compared to 36.66% (11 samples) in breast cancer samples. In addition, investigating the correlation between mRNA PSA expression and different clinicopathological parameters using the Breast Cancer Gene-Expression Miner v4.0 database and ONCOMINE databases, revealed a significant association between PSA expression and tumor grade (P = 0.0001), breast cancer subtype (P < 0.0001), in addition to early-stage disease presented as smaller tumor size and absence of LN involvement. The same trend confirmed with our patient cohort. Moreover, our analysis using KM plotter (4000 breast cancer samples) showed a significant association between higher PSA mRNA levels and favorable patient outcomes presented as prolonged relapse-free survival (RFS) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Our results clearly demonstrate the possibility of using tissue mRNA and protein levels of PSA as a marker to identify patients with a favorable outcome and lower risk of tumor recurrence. Our results also highlight the need for more efforts to investigate the biological role of PSA in breast cancer.
  378 81 -
Soil pH effect on bone degradation: Implications in forensic investigation
Loveday Ese Oghenemavwe, Clinton David Orupabo, Teke Jemina Horsfall
July-September 2022, 1(3):156-161
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_10_22  
Background: Skeletal remains have become the mainstay in forensic investigations. Hence, it is imperative to study bone degradation and some influencers as to guide forensic practices. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of soil pH on bone degradation. Methods: One-centimeter diameter sections of the mid-shaft of the femur of a male cadaver were buried for the duration of 6 weeks in soils of different pH: 2.98 for the acidic soil, 7.10 for the neutral soil, and 11.58 for the alkaline soil. Histological sections of the exhumed bones were prepared using Frost’s rapid manual method. Four fields of view at 12 o’clock, 3 o’clock, 6 o’clock, and 9 o’clock positions were obtained for each section. Results: Quantitative analysis showed that there was a reduction in the mean Haversian canal area (HCA) and Haversian canal diameter (HCD) in the samples of bone fragments buried in the acidic and alkaline soil when compared with control. The acidic soil sample showed a mean HCA and HCD of 130.58 μm and 12.24 μm as against 136.83 μm and 12.48 μm of the control, whereas the alkaline soil sample showed a mean HCA and HCD of 122.70 μm and 11.70 μm, respectively. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference in the HCA and HCD (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The result of this study suggests that the extreme of soil pH can cause the weathering of bone, which can distort the histomorphometry. The study focused on the extremes of pH and not various scales. This should help guide forensic investigations.
  354 52 -
Incidence and seasonal variation of hospital admissions for acute bronchiolitis among children younger than two years in a Northern Emirates hospital
Balsam Qubais Saeed, Hanan Abdulgader Sharif, Rula Al-Shahrabi, Ahmed Omar Adrees, Zainab Mansour Alkokhardi
July-September 2022, 1(3):131-136
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_16_22  
Background: There is limited information about acute bronchiolitis (AB) in the United Arab Emirates. The study aims to describe incidents, hospitalizations, and seasonal variation of AB among children less than 2 years. Methods: The retrospective data were collected for children ≤24 months who were admitted in the University Hospital Sharjah with AB from January 1, 2018 to December 31, 2019. Demographic characteristics, vital signs, management, admission data, cases seasonality, maternity history, and co-infections related to the cases were analyzed. Results: A total of 2496 AB cases were reported. Males and children more than 6 months were more infected than females and infants ≤ 6 month. Most of the cases were from emergency room, discharged within the same day and delivered by normal vaginal delivery. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was the commonest cause of AB. Other etiological agents included influenza viruses, adenoviruses, Streptococcus spp., and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The seasonal variation peak of AB for the 2 years was found in the Autumn months, with a small peak reported in the beginning of Spring months. The number of AB cases in 2019 was greater than that in 2018. Conclusion: AB is a common reason for hospitalization among males and children more than 6 months during the Autumn season. RSV is the common responsible virus for hospital admissions and morbidity. Our results may guide effort toward healthcare provision and implementation of AB prevention.
  326 67 -
Identifying malignant nodules on chest X-rays: A validation study of radiologist versus artificial intelligence diagnostic accuracy
Bassam Mahboub, Manoj Tadepalli, Tarun Raj, Rajalakshmi Santhanakrishnan, Mahmood Yaseen Hachim, Usama Bastaki, Rifat Hamoudi, Ehsan Haider, Abdullah Alabousi
July-September 2022, 1(3):137-143
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_17_22  
Background: Three and half million anonymous X-rays were gathered from 45 locations worldwide (in-hospital and outpatient settings). qXR was initially trained on this massive dataset. We used an independent dataset of 13,426 chest X-rays from radiologists’ reports. The test data set included 213,459 X-rays chosen at random from a pool of 3.5 million X-rays. The dataset (development) was developed using the remaining X-rays received from the remaining patients. Methods: qXR is a deep learning algorithm-enabled software that is used to study nodules and malignant nodules on X-rays. We observed moderate to a substantial agreement even when observations were made with normal X-rays. Results: qXR presented a high area under the curve (AUC) of 0.99 with a 95% confidence interval calculated with the Clopper–Pearson method. The specificity obtained with qXR was 0.90, and the sensitivity was 1 at the operating threshold. The sensitivity value of qXR in detecting nodules was 0.99, and the specificity ranged from 0.87 to 0.92, with AUC ranging between 0.98 and 0.99. The malignant nodules were detected with a sensitivity ranging from 0.95 to 1.00, specificity between 0.96 and 0.99, and AUC from 0.99 to 1. The sensitivity of radiologists 1 and 2 was between 0.74 and 0.76, with a specificity ranging from 0.98 to 0.99. In detecting the malignant nodules, specificity ranged between 0.98 and 0.99, and sensitivity fell between 0.88 and 0.94. Conclusion: Machine learning model can be used as a passive tool to find incidental cases of lung cancer or as a triaging tool, which accelerate the patient journey through standard care pipeline for lung cancer.
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Nutrition knowledge of caregivers working in health and education centers for children with special healthcare needs
Leila Cheikh Ismail, Salma Abu Qiyas, Maysm N Mohamad, Tareq Mohammed Ibrahim Osaili, Reyad Rashid Shaker Obaid, Sheima T Saleh, Hanin Kassem, Ayesha S Al Dhaheri, Rameez Al Daour, Radhiya Al Rajaby, Hayder Abbas Hasan, Mona Sharef Hashim
July-September 2022, 1(3):144-155
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_26_22  
Background: Children with special healthcare needs are recognized as a high-risk group for malnutrition. Caregivers have a strong influence on the dietary habits of their students, therefore, adequate nutrition knowledge among caregivers and educators has a great potential in improving the health of children. The purpose of this study is to assess the level of nutrition knowledge and demographic influences of knowledge among caregivers working in health and education centers. Methods: a cross-sectional, web-based survey was conducted among educators and caregivers working at Sharjah City for Humanitarian Services to assess their nutritional knowledge using a modified validated general nutrition knowledge questionnaire. Results: 233 participants completed the survey. The basic recommendations about reducing the intake of sugary, salty, and fatty foods and consuming more water and vegetables were best acknowledged. However, an inadequate level of knowledge was identified regarding specified number portion. For instance, more than half of the participants were aware of the need to consume more vegetables and fruits while only 10% knew the minimum number of servings to consume in a day. The overall nutrition knowledge score was adequate at 46.30 (55.1%). Caregivers with nutrition qualifications and who have four children had a significantly higher knowledge score. Older age was associated with better diet-disease relationship knowledge. Conclusions: The level of nutrition knowledge among caregivers and health workers was insufficient. However, periodic nutrition education reinforcement among health caregivers should be considered.
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