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  Most popular articles (Since August 11, 2021)

 
 
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EDITORIAL
Do we need another medical journal in the United Arab Emirates?
Qutayba Hamid
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_17_21  
  156 14 -
Advances in medical and health sciences: The promise and challenges
Mohamed H Sayegh
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_9_21  
  120 20 -
REVIEW ARTICLE
C-type lectin receptors in skin immunity: Emerging new role for CLEC12B
Lauriane Blot, Thierry Passeron, Meri K Tulic
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_20_21  
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a superfamily of transmembrane proteins, which consist of one or several C-type lectin-like domains and intracellular signaling motifs, such as immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) or immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM). CLRs are mostly expressed on antigen-presenting cells and are known to play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunity. As a result, CLRs are involved in numerous physiological functions due to their ability to recognize pathogen-, tumor-, and damaged-associated molecular patterns on pathogens and host cells acting as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These immune receptors can respond to signals from the surrounding environment which has a direct and profound effect on the skin, the largest organ in the body and the only one that is in direct contact with the external environmental stimuli. The skin is colonized by a plethora of microorganisms constituting the skin microbiota and plays a central role in host defense against potentially pathogenic microbes including bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Skin dysbiosis has been shown to play a critical role in initiation of skin disease and/or induction of a local inflammatory environment. In this review, we discuss what is known about CLRs in skin immunity and their contribution to skin disease, with a special focus on a newly identified and a promising new CLR, CLEC12B.
  10 3 -
SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
Effectiveness of cervical spine manual therapy in the management of temporomandibular joint disorders: A systematic review
Shayma Waleed Bahlool, Kausar Sadia Fakhruddin, Fatma A Hegazy
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_10_21  
Background: Temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) is a complex condition involving temporomandibular joint (TMJ), masticatory muscles, and adjoining myofascial structures. In the present review, we attempted to evaluate the manual cervical therapy (MT) effect in reducing TMJ pain of myogenous origin and increasing mandibular range of motion (ROM) in TMD cases in relevance to the duration of therapy and posttherapy follow-up period. Materials and Methods: English language manuscripts using PUBMED/MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EMBASE, CINAHLPlus, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CDR, and PEDro databases were accessed between January 01, 2011, and January 2021. Following PRISMA guidelines, eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Results: The analysis included 383 patients with TMD, primarily women aged ±27 (18–72) years. Employing varied techniques of manual cervical therapies, the reviewed RCT results demonstrated either immediate or short-term effectiveness in orofacial pain reduction and improvement in jaw function. Conclusion: This review presented the short-term effectiveness of cervical manual therapy and limited high-quality evidence determining the optimal procedure of cervical manual therapy approaches and duration of the session provided to treat cases with TMD of myogenous origin.
  8 2 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Minimally invasive surgeries for the treatment of temporomandibular disorders: Prognostic indicators and persistence of treatment outcomes over a 5-year follow-up
Wael M Talaat, Zaid Hamdoon, Mohamed M Ghoneim
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_14_21  
Background: Patients refractory to conservative treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are candidates for more invasive treatments such as arthroscopy and arthrocentesis. The aim of the present study was to identify the predictors of long-term success and the persistence of treatment outcome for temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthroscopic lysis and lavage and arthrocentesis for the treatment of TMD. Methods: An analysis of 64 minimally invasive surgeries used to treat disk displacement without reduction in group I (n = 36), and osteoarthritis in group II (n = 28) was conducted. Success was identified as a pain score ≤ 3, disability score ≤ 2, and maximal mouth opening greater than 35 mm. Results: The overall success rate was 85.9%. The difference in success rate between groups was not significant (P = 0.441). Preoperative predictors of success in group I were fewer tender muscles (P < 0.01), shorter duration of symptoms (P = 0.046), lower pain (P < 0.01), and lower disability (P = 0.0104), whereas in group II there were fewer tender muscles (P < 0.01), less limitation in opening (P < 0.01), and lower disability (P = 0.0131). Conclusion: Arthroscopy and arthrocentesis were equally efficient after 5 years. Fewer tender muscles and lower disability preoperatively were common predictors of success. Pain recorded at 1 year, and maximum opening and disability recorded at 3 months were maintained after 5 years.
  6 2 -
Knowledge, attitude, and practice toward the novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak: A cross-sectional study in Palestine
Hatem A Hejaz, Inad Nawajah, Maaly Wredat, Walaa Melhem
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_16_22  
Background: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a global concern and the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared it as a public health emergency of international concern. Objectives: This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 among the general population of Palestine at the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire; a series of questions regarding the KAP of the population about COVID-19 was asked, and participants’ demographic characteristics and source of information regarding COVID-19 were collected and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, version 26.0. Results: Seven hundred twenty-four individuals participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 28 years (standard deviation [SD] = 10.7), the majority were females 558 (77.1%), with a bachelor’s degree 480 (66.3%), and 229 (31.6%) students. Most of them from Hebron governorate 609 (84.1%) and many of them reported that they wear a mask when they leave their house and avoid shaking hands, 494 (68.2%), 424 (58.6%), respectively. The results indicate that Palestinians have a good level of knowledge about COVID-19 with a positive attitude and good compliance with Palestinian government measures. The result showed a significant correlation between female gender, higher age, and higher education with KAP. However, male gender, nonhealth-care-related professions, single, and lower level of education were significantly associated with lower knowledge scores. There was no clear satisfaction with the government’s role in limiting and controlling the spread of COVID-19. Conclusions: Palestinian population showed decent knowledge, appropriate practice, and a positive attitude toward the COVID-19 outbreak.
  6 2 -
COMMENTARY
Regulatory frameworks for a safe and effective use of essential oils: A critical appraisal
Farah Naja, Rena Hamadeh, Mohamad Alameddine
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_8_21  
The safe and effective use of essential oils (EOs) will only be fully realized when coupled with supportive regulatory frameworks ensuring the safety, quality, and efficacy of these oils. The aim of this short communication was to present a critical appraisal of existing regulations governing the use and production of EOs, within the health and therapeutics, food industry, and cosmetics sectors. Although few regulations target the use of EOs in cosmetics, more structured regulatory frameworks exist within the health and therapeutics, and food industry domains. To that end, the main international entities involved in the regulation of EOs within these sectors are the World Health Organization and the Food and Agricultural Organization. As for the production of EOs, the International Organization for Standardization has set standard specifications for the derivation, characterization, packaging, labeling, and storage of EOs. Although existing regulations address important dimensions related to the production and use of EOs, a comprehensive and harmonized outlook on their regulations would be necessary to ensure their safe integration in the various industries. Such regulations ought to be informed by the important advances in the chemical and biological research unraveling the versatile and complex characteristics of these oils.
  6 1 -
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Vitamin D attenuates viral-induced inflammation in adipocytes of obese individuals
Mellissa Gaudet, Andrea Mogas, Saba Al Heialy
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_19_21  
Background: The clinical association between obesity and increased risk of infection is well established; however, the role of adipocytes remains unknown. Adipocytes are important players in the meta-inflammation observed in obese individuals. Moreover, adipocytes are now emerging as potential viral reservoirs for viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, the virus behind the COVID-19 pandemic, due to increased expression of virus receptors [angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) and TMPRSS2]. Moreover, obesity has been linked to vitamin D deficiency. We hypothesized that vitamin D supplementation can attenuate the viral-induced inflammation in adipocytes of obese subjects and potentially regulate the expression of viral receptors. Materials and Methods: Adipocytes were differentiated in vitro from subcutaneous human pre-adipocytes obtained from nonobese and obese individuals. Poly(I:C) (10 μg/mL), which binds to toll-like receptor-3 (TLR3), was used to mimic viral infection, in the absence and presence of 100 nM of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 for 24 hours. Adipocytes were collected for RNA extraction. qRT-PCR was performed to assess the expression of TLR3, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-β, ACE2, TMPRSS2. Results: Pre-stimulation with Poly(I:C), adipocytes from obese individuals showed higher expression of TLR3, TNF-α, IFN-β, ACE2, and TMPRSS2 highlighting the inflammatory status of obese adipocytes. Following stimulation with Poly(I:C), expression of TLR3, IL-8, TNF-α, and IFN-β were significantly increased in obese adipocytes compared to nonobese. Vitamin D supplementation was able to decrease significantly TLR3, IL-8, and IFN-β expression. Expression of IL-6, ACE2, and TMPRSS2 were increased in both nonobese and obese adipocytes in response to Poly (I:C) with significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on IL-6 and TMPRSS2 expression in obese adipocytes. Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation provides a potential therapeutic advantage in the viral-induced inflammation seen in adipocytes especially in relation to obesity. Our results also suggest that vitamin D can be used to regulate the expression of receptors and proteases involved in SARS-CoV-2 viral entry.
  4 3 -
EDITORIAL
The evolving landscape of digital health using big data analytics for personalized healthcare
Salman Yousuf Guraya
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_22_21  
  4 2 -
CASE REPORT
Retrieval of overextending separated endodontic instrument: A review of methods and case report
Saaid Al Shehadat, Mohamed El-Kishawi, Renira Nisha Lobo, Priyanka Jain
Ahead of print schedule 0, 0(0):0-0
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_4_21  
Instrument separation during root canal treatment is one of the most unpleasant mishaps. Several techniques have been described to retrieve the separated instruments; however, they generally require specific tools that are not always available at dental clinics. This case report aims at presenting a simple alternative technique for the removal of root canal instruments separated during endodontic treatment. Endodontic retreatment was indicated for a maxillary lateral incisor of a 19-year-old patient. The radiographic examinations revealed the presence of a separated (fractured) instrument beyond the apical part of the canal. Retreatment was initiated by removing the obturated materials. After several unsuccessful attempts to retrieve the broken fragment, a hypodermic needle with chemically self-cure acrylic resin was used under an endodontic microscope to remove the separated fragment successfully. The retrieval technique used in this case was safe, simple, and low cost.
  4 1 -