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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
January-March 2023
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-49

Online since Wednesday, January 25, 2023

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EDITORIAL  

Artificial intelligence in medicine and medical education p. 1
Rifat Hamoudi
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_69_22  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of the artificial intelligence system with human readers in the diagnosis of portable chest x-rays during the COVID-19 pandemic Highly accessed article p. 4
Leena R David, Wiam Elshami, Aisha Alshuweihi, Abdulmunhem Obaideen, Bashar Afif Issa, Shishir Ram Shetty
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_29_22  
Background: Evaluating the performance of the available machine learning software is fundamental to ensure trustworthiness and improve automated diagnosis. This study compared the diagnostic accuracy of artificial intelligence (AI) system reporting with human readers for portable chest anteroposterior (AP) x-rays acquired patients in a semi-recumbent position. Methods: Ninety-four patients who underwent portable chest AP with clinical suspicion or confirmed COVID-19 were included in the study; among them, 65 were COVID-19 positive and 29 had symptoms. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) Chest was available for 39 patients. Images were read by two radiologists (R1, R2) and AI. In case of disagreement between R1 and R2, a third radiologist (R3) read the images; however, if HRCT Chest was available, we counted HRCT Chest instead of R3. Thus, the gold standard was HRCT or R1 = R2, R1 = R3, or R2 = R3. Results: The sensitivity of the AI system in detecting pleural effusion and consolidation was 100% and 91.3%, respectively. The specificity of the AI system in detecting pleural effusion and lung consolidation was 84% and 61%, respectively. Nevertheless, there is no good agreement between the gold standard and AI in the case of other chest pathologies. Conclusion: Significant moderate agreement with AI and gold standard was shown for pleural effusion and consolidation. There was no significant agreement between the gold standard and AI in the case of the widened mediastinum, collapse, and other pathologies. However, future studies with large sample sizes, multicentric with multiple clinical indications, and radiographic views are recommended.
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Targeting KDM4B attenuates IL-13-mediated fibrosis in bronchial fibroblasts of severe asthmatics p. 13
Khuloud Bajbouj, Rakhee K Ramakrishnan, Huda Alketbi, Lina Sahnoon, Jasmin Shafarin, Mahmood Y Hachim, Ronald Olivenstein, Qutayba Hamid
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_42_22  
Background: Asthma is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by chronic inflammation and remodeling of the airways. Asthma is mainly driven by type 2 immune responses, where interleukin-13 (IL-13) plays a key role in asthma pathogenesis. KDM4B/JMJD2B is an IL-13-regulated epigenetic modifier in asthmatic airway fibroblasts. Therefore, this study aimed to target KDM4B to potentially alleviate IL-13-mediated fibrosis in asthma. Methods: Bronchial fibroblasts isolated from asthmatic individuals were stimulated with IL-13 and treated with JIB-04, a pan-selective inhibitor of histone demethylase(s). The expression of extracellular matrix (ECM) markers was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity assay. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to determine the binding of KDM4B and H3K36me3 to promoter region of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). KDM4B knockdown was performed to confirm its direct role on TIMP/MMP regulation. Results: JIB-04 inhibited KDM4B activity by reducing the demethylation of its downstream target, H3K36me3, in asthmatic fibroblasts. Inhibition of KDM4B significantly affected the viability of the bronchial fibroblasts at 48 h. KDM4B inhibition was further associated with the downregulation of ECM proteins such as MMP-2, MMP-9, collagen-1, and fibronectin, and upregulation of TIMP-2, at both the gene and protein levels. This was accompanied by the inhibition of IL-13-mediated fibrotic response. JIB-04 further prevented KDM4B association and enhanced H3K36 binding with promoter region of TIMP-2 leading to its increased transcription. KDM4B knockdown further resulted in inducing TIMP-2 expression and inhibited MMP-9 activation. Conclusion: Therapeutic targeting of KDM4B using JIB-04 is a promising candidate to alleviate IL-13-mediated responses in chronic disorders such as asthma.
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Potential anti-adipogenic activity of Calligonum comosum cuminaldehyde on mouse 3T3-pre-adipocytes p. 23
Mohammad Ghaleb Mohammad, Ahmed El-Serafi, Mohamed Ibrahim Madkour, Abeer Alhabshi, Ansar Wadea, Rola Abu Jabal, Divyasree Sandeep, Sameh S M. Soliman
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_40_22  
Background: Obesity is a medical condition characterized by augmented body fat mass that can adversely affect human health. Several regimens were suggested to counteract obesity and fat accumulation with limited success. As plants are well-known source of medicinal products, we studied the potential anti-adipogenic activity of the essential oil extracted from Calligonum comosum plants growing in the desert of the United Arab Emirates. Methods: C. comosum essential oil was extracted and fractionated on thin layer chromatography. The effect of total oil extract, the major compound-rich fraction, and the pure compound (cuminaldehyde) were tested on the viability, lipid content, and glucose uptake of 3T3-L1 cells. The capability of cuminaldehyde to reduce the formation of 3D-adipocyte pellets and expression of related transcripts was also tested. Results: The results showed that C. comosum essential oil, particularly its major component cuminaldehyde, caused a significant reduction in the viability of 3T3-L1 cells when compared with fibroblasts, employed as controls. Furthermore, cuminaldehyde caused a significant reduction in the lipid content of 3T3 cells, as determined by Nile red stain, reduction in the glucose uptake, and reduction in the levels of both triglycerides and cholesterol. Moreover, cuminaldehyde significantly reduced the formation of 3D-adipocyte pellets and the expression of adipocyte-specific transcripts, CAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. Conclusion: Taken together, these results demonstrated a potential inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3 adipocytes after treatment with cuminaldehyde extracted from C. comosum oil. Thus, cuminaldehyde can be considered as a new potential anti-adipogenic agent for the prevention and treatment of obesity.
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Correlation among cognitive functions, mood disturbance, and health-related quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional survey p. 31
Noor Mohammad, Neha Naaz, Nahid Khan
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_36_22  
Background: The purpose of this study was to find the possible correlation among cognitive functions, mood disturbance, and health-related quality of life in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: This study was a preliminary cross-sectional survey study carried out on 40 participants diagnosed with T2DM for more than 2 years. The age group ranged between 35 and 55 years. Demographic data were recorded. Cognitive function was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, mood disturbance was assessed using the profile of mood states questionnaire and health-related quality of life was assessed using the Euroqol-5d-5l questionnaire. Results: There was a significant negative correlation between cognitive functions and mood disturbance (r = −0.45, P < 0.05), no correlation between cognitive functions and health-related quality of life (examiner scoring) (r = 0.29, P = 0.06), significant weak positive correlation between cognitive functions and health-related quality of life (participant self-score) (r = 0.37, P < 0.05). Significant strong negative correlation between mood disturbance and health-related quality of life (examiner scoring) (r = −0.66, P < 0.001), significant negative correlation between mood disturbance and health-related quality of life (participant self-score) (r = −0.62, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Cognitive functions and mood disturbances are important factors that may adversely affect health-related quality of life in people with T2DM. More attention should be given to cognitive function and mood disturbance in people with T2DM to minimize the negative impact of the illness on their health-related quality of life.
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Evaluating the acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine among the adult population in the United Arab Emirates p. 36
Radwa Atef Ahmed Hassan, Yazan Mazen Yaser, Ahmed Khaled Mahmoud Abdelhamid Aboeldahab, Maryam O. A O. Alqallaf, Alya Abdallah Youssef Al Hamadi, Amal Hussein
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_39_22  
Background: Ever since the emergence of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) infection in the UAE, the government had taken several preventive measures against the disease, including vaccination. Acceptance of the vaccine among the population played a crucial role in determining whether the pandemic could be successfully controlled. This study aimed to assess the acceptance, knowledge, and perception of the COVID-19 vaccine among the adult population of the UAE. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a snowball sampling method among UAE residents above 18 years of age. Data were collected using an online questionnaire consisting of 33 close-ended questions divided into three sections. Results: A total of 825 adults (males = 18.4% and females = 81.6%) participated in the study. Males were 3.3 times more likely to get vaccinated than females (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–5.7). Those participants who took the flu vaccine before were 1.4 times more likely to get vaccinated (95% CI: 1.003–1.897). Employed participants were three times more likely to take the vaccine as compared with students and those who were unemployed (95% CI: 2.078–4.577). Likewise, those who were over 40 years old and those who believed in the efficacy and safety of vaccines were more willing to get vaccinated. Conclusion: The acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine was overall high, especially among males and employees. Our findings may help identify vulnerable groups in order to expand vaccination coverage and help raise awareness among UAE residents.
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CASE REPORT Top

Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis: Report of a case and review of literature p. 45
Hussam Al Trabulsi, Tala Muassess, Salman Yousuf Guraya
DOI:10.4103/abhs.abhs_59_22  
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare clinical condition that occurs secondary to a triggering factor such as peritoneal dialysis. The condition entails the encasement of a part of or entire small bowel in a fibro-collagenous membrane, causing subacute, acute, or chronic bowel obstruction. This case report presents a middle-aged man with recurring episodes of vague abdominal pain. The clinical examination and investigations showed small-bowel obstruction mostly focused around the previous area of mesh placement for umbilical hernia repair. The abdominal exploration showed a fibrous sac encasing the small-bowel loops, which necessitated adhesiolysis. Most of the fibrous encapsulating membrane was removed. The patient made an uneventful recovery. The treating surgeons for patients with vague manifestations of small obstruction should have a high index suspicion for rare causes of abdominal pain such as SEP.
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APPRECIATION Top

Appreciation of editorial board, reviewers, authors and support staff p. 49
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